The Wonders of Wakame

wakame-seaweed

Are you looking for a new food to try in 2017? Explore a new taste with a wakame salad! Wakame is an edible brown seaweed commonly used in Japanese, Korea, and Chinese cuisines that is quickly gaining popularity in the U.S. due to its array of health-promoting properties.  In Japan it is used as a blood purifier and is appreciated for its ability to nourish the skin and hair.  Studies with mice suggest that a carotenoid in wakame called fucoxanthin exerts both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties.  Fucoxanthin and other compounds in wakame appear to promote cardiovascular health by limiting inflammation and improving blood cholesterol levels. A polysaccharide known as fucoidan found in wakame and other brown seaweeds ( such as kombu and hijiki) has proven antitumor and immunity-enhancing properties.  Results of a 2013 study conducted by researchers at the University of California suggest that wakame may lower the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Wakame is a rich source of minerals, including iodine, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Iodine is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism; potassium helps keep blood pressure in check; calcium and magnesium support bone health; and iron allows for production of healthy red blood cells.

Wakame can be boiled to make a mineral-rich soup broth or rehydrated in a bowl of lukewarm water and then combined with other ingredients to make a nutritious salad. Here is one to try.

Wakame-Arugula Salad

Soak 2 or 3 strips of dry wakame in lukewarm water for about 10 minutes; drain the wakame and place in a bowl of boiling water briefly and then run cold water over it to bring out the greenish color.

Drain the wakame and then chop it into small strips.

Place the strips in a small bowl; add a couple tablespoons each of soy sauce, rice vinegar, and lemon juice to the wakame; allow it to marinate about 10 minutes.

Arrange a salad plate with arugula, avocado slices, and chopped walnuts.

Add the wakame.

Drizzle the plate with extra-virgin olive oil and lemon juice.

Add sea salt and pepper to taste.wakame-arugula-salad2

Toss the Salt Shaker – Add Some Herbs

salt shaker 2

According to the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans, “Healthy eating patterns limit sodium.”  Adults and children ages 14 and older are advised to limit their intake of sodium to less than 2,300 mg (about one teaspoon) per day, and children younger than 14 should consume even less.  Unfortunately, the average daily intake of sodium in the U.S. for those ages 1 year and older is 3,440 mg, which is about one and a half times the recommended upper limit.  For adult men, the average daily intake is 4,240 mg, while for adult women the average daily intake is 2,980 mg.  According to the American Heart Association, nine out of ten Americans consume too much sodium.

Where does all this sodium come from?  The majority is added during commercial food processing and preparation. According to the latest Dietary Guidelines, mixed dishes, which include burgers, sandwiches, and tacos; rice, pasta, and grain dishes; pizza, meat, poultry, and seafood dishes, and soups – account for about half of the sodium consumed in the U.S. The remainder comes from sodium that naturally occurs in food or from salt added at home during cooking or at the table from a salt shaker.

Why should you be concerned about your sodium intake?

  • A high intake of sodium can increase your blood pressure, and high blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death in women in the U.S., contributing to almost 200,000 female deaths each year, according to the American Heart Association.
  • Excessive intake of sodium/salt can increase your risk for heart failure, stroke, kidney disease, osteoporosis, stomach cancer, kidney stones, enlarged heart muscle, and headaches.
  • Too much sodium/salt can increase fluid retention, which can lead to puffiness, bloating, and weight gain.

What are some strategies to lower your sodium intake?

  • Eat at home more often; cook from scratch to control the sodium content of dishes.
  • Use lemon juice, herbs, and spices to flavor food, instead of salt.
  • Increase the proportion of fresh or frozen vegetables in your meals; these are very low in sodium.
  • When grocery shopping, use the Nutrition Facts panel to compare the sodium content of foods and select those with less sodium.
  • Buy low-sodium, reduced sodium, or no-salt-added versions of products if available ( for instance, unsalted peanuts).
  • Choose fresh poultry, seafood, pork, and lean meat instead of processed meat and poultry.
  • Avoid dishes with sauces and  mixes, as well as “instant” products, including flavored rice, instant noodles, and ready-made pasta.

Why use lemon, herbs, and spices?

  • Lemon juice: one tablespoon provides 8% of the Daily Value for immune-boosting vitamin C and only 3 calories.; it contains no sodium. It gives a nice “kick” to salads and soups.
  • Herbs: the American Cancer Institute has identified over 20 herbs with anti-cancer properties, including basil, parsley, cilantro, thyme, and oregano. Many herbs have antimicrobial properties, which protect us against infections. Some herbs are good sources of vitamins; for example, two tablespoons of fresh parsley provides over 100% of the Daily Value for vitamin K, which is important for bone and heart health, as well as 16% of the Daily Value for vitamin C.  Herbs can be used to add taste and color to scrambled eggs, soups, salads, meats, poultry, and fish.

    parsley

    Flat-leaf parsley

  • Spices: spices such as cinnamon, ginger, and turmeric not only make food tastier, they also make it healthier. Cinnamon helps control blood sugar, ginger can soothe arthritis pain, and turmeric can defend against inflammatory diseases, including  heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes.

    turmeric

    Turmeric

Keeping your sodium intake within the recommended limit can be challenging, but it is possible.  Just  watch the sodium content of foods you buy, favoring fresh over processed,  eat at home more often,  and limit the amount of salt you add to food – flavoring dishes with lemon juice and a variety of herbs and spices. You may be surprised how fun it is to appreciate new flavors.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six Healthy Diet Trends for 2016

green tea with lemon 002

Matcha green tea

 

Diet trends cover everything from which foods we’re eating more and less of – to where we’re getting our food from and how we’re preparing it. Some recent trends promise a quick-fix – like the detox juice cleanse, and some offer indulgent fun – like the “no dinner, just a dessert-tasting, please.”  These are examples of trends that might be dangerous over the long haul. Juice cleanses can lead to nutritional deficiencies (such as protein, calcium, iron),  and too many desserts can increase both your waist size and your weight.

Fortunately, in the past couple of years we have witnessed a shift away from fast food and sugar-sweetened sodas (McDonald’s and PepsiCo have reported declining sales) and towards farm-fresh produce and “clean” eating (consuming food that is unprocessed or less processed with few additives.) There also has been an increase in interest in nuts, seeds, soy, gluten-free grains, dairy-free beverages (such as soy milk, almond milk, and coconut milk) and vegetarian entrees.  The low-carb, low-fat diet war has lost its intensity, and people are focusing more on “good” carbs and “good” fats.

Consistent with these trends, the newly released Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015-2020 advises Americans to choose plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and healthful oils and to limit their intakes of added sugars, saturated and trans fats, and sodium. Americans are advised to limit their intakes of both saturated fat and added sugars to less than 10 percent of total calories.  Sodium intake should be no more than 2,300 milligrams (about a teaspoon of salt) a day. Unfortunately, according to a recent report by the CDC, more than 96 percent of men and more than 80 percent of women consume more than this amount of sodium.  Make it a New Year’s resolution to keep your diet based on fresh, unprocessed foods and avoid eating too many restaurant meals, which can be high in calories, harmful fats, added sugars, and sodium.

Here is a look at six healthy diet trends for 2016.   You might want to give one or two of them a try.

1.) Fresh meal delivery –  companies such as HelloFresh and Blue Apron take the stress out of fixing healthful meals at home by delivering right to your doorstep kits filled with exactly what you need to prepare a tasty meal from fresh, unprocessed ingredients.  As a bonus, there is much less food waste, and you don’t have to spend as much time shopping. Furthermore, meals are generally seasoned with herbs and spices instead of salt.

2.) Pulses – “Pulses” is an umbrella term for 12 crops, including dry beans, dry peas, chickpeas, and lentils.  The United Nations has declared 2016 to be the International Year of Pulses. Pulses are rich in protein and fiber and packed with antioxidants that can help deter diseases such as heart disease and cancer.

3.) Bitter vegetables – consumers like to try new flavors, and according to marker research from Mintel, this year more restaurants plan to offer vegetables with bitter flavors, such as Brussels sprouts and collard greens. Many bitter vegetables are in the cruciferous family of vegetables, and are loaded with cancer-fighting phytochemicals.

4.) The Mediterranean Diet – the Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes,  nuts, fish, olive oil, herbs and spices, and even includes red wine in moderation.  It is limited in red meat and sugars.  Research continues to support the notion that this is a diet to choose for optimal health and disease prevention. According to the Mayo clinic, an analysis of more than 1.5 million healthy adults demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet was associated with a reduced risk of death from heart disease and cancer, as well as a lower incidence of both Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. The analysis found that the diet cut the risk of developing breast cancer by two-thirds.

5.) Probiotics – gut health is expected to be a popular concern this year; there is a lot of research examining the gut-brain connection and the gut-weight connection.  Research suggests that the healthy bacteria found in  yogurt, kefir, and fermented foods such as sauerkraut and kimchi might help regulate weight, boost immunity, and even improve mental health.

6.) Matcha (green tea powder) – in case you are looking for a new, healthful beverage, consider brewing a cup of matcha. It is a type of Japanese green tea, made from young leaves, which are steamed, unlike other green teas.  (The steaming helps preserve the polyphenol catechins, powerful antioxidants that may protect against cancer.)   Once the leaves have been steamed, their stems are removed and they are air-dried and ground into a fine powder. Matcha tea is made by dissolving the bright green powder into hot water. Traditionally, a bamboo whisk is used to properly blend the powder into the water, but a milk frother works well too. Matcha may enhance your ability to focus and improve your mood due to its combination of caffeine and L-theanine, an amino acid known for its ability to reduce anxiety. The result is a calm, focused energy.

Consider jumping on the bandwagon with one or more of these latest diet trends.

 

 

 

 

 

Eight Reasons to Eat Flaxseed

Whole flaxseed

Whole flaxseed

Adding  tiny flaxseeds to your foods can provide big benefits for your health. Not only does flax help protect you against several common diseases, it also provides beauty benefits for your skin and hair.  Flaxseed is the seed of the plant Linum usitatissimum which has been treasured and cultivated around the world for thousands of years.  As early as 3000 BC, flaxseed was grown in Babylon. In the eighth century, King Charlemagne believed so strongly in the goodness of flaxseed, that he passed laws mandating that his subjects consume it.  In recent years, research has fueled a renewed interest in the benefits of  flaxseed, and it is appearing on more grocery shelves as whole and ground flaxseed, flax oil, flax oil supplements, and even added to foods such as cereals, frozen waffles, and cookies.  In 2015, perhaps you should discover the many wonders of flax and find ways to add it to your diet.

What makes flaxseed so amazingly healthful? It is brimming with important nutrients including alpha-linolenic acid ( a plant omega-3 fatty acid),  fiber, and lignans, phytochemicals which have cancer-protective properties.  It also is a good source of the minerals magnesium, iron, and zinc, as well as the B-vitamin thiamin. It imparts a nutty flavor to foods and can be sprinkled on a variety of foods including cereals, salads, yogurts, and cooked vegetables and can be included in recipes for casseroles and baked goods.  Some of the benefits of consuming flaxseed include the following:

  1. Heart health: The soluble fiber in flaxseed helps lower LDL (bad) cholesterol which can promote plaque build-up in the arteries. The anti-inflammatory effect of the alpha-linolenic acid also promotes heart health.
  2. Cancer protection: Flaxseed is one of the best sources of lignans, plant compounds that act like a weak form of estrogen and are thought to lower the risk of breast, colon, and prostate cancer. The lignans help block enzymes involved in hormone metabolism, which promotes the growth and spread of cancer cells.  A Canadian study published in 2013 in Cancer Causes Control found that consumption of flaxseed was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of breast cancer. In animal studies, alphalinolenic acid, the plant omega-3 fatty acid found in flaxseed, has deterred cancer incidence and growth.
  3. Digestive health: The fiber in flaxseed has a laxative effect, and can help prevent constipation and maintain bowel regularity.
  4. Blood sugar control: The fiber in flaxseed helps keep blood sugar levels steady. A study published in 2011 in the Journal of Dietary Supplements found that diabetic patients who consumed a tablespoon of ground flaxseeds every day for a month saw a significant drop in both their fasting blood sugar levels and A1C levels, compared to those in the control group.  Flax may help control blood sugar by improving insulin insensitivity in people who are glucose intolerant.
  5. Strong bones: a study published in the International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition, and Public Health in 2009 found that diabetic and menopause-induced rats fed flaxseed oil showed a delay in bone loss as a result of the omega-3 fatty acids; the researchers recommended that human research be conducted to confirm the use of flaxseed oil to improve bone health and to prevent osteoporosis.
  6. Weight control: when flax is ingested, it expands, making you feel fuller. Research suggests that adding flaxseed to your daily diet can result in a slimmer waistline, as well.
  7. Enhanced immune function: the alpha-linolenic acid decreases inflammation, which helps the immune system function better. Flaxseed may help inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. The mineral zinc also helps bolster the immune system.
  8. Healthier skin, hair, and eyes: the omega-3 fatty acids help treat chronic skin conditions, including rosacea, eczema, acne, and skin allergies. They seems to keep the skin moisturized and smooth from the inside out. They also nourish skin follicles, and keep hair strong and healthy. They also combat dry eyes by helping the body produce more tears naturally and keeping the eyes lubricated.

Buying Flaxseed

Flax can be found in some conventional grocery stores and in health food stores.  You can buy the seeds either whole or ground. If you buy the whole seeds, you can grind them yourself in a coffee grinder, food processor, or blender.  Grinding the seeds makes them easier for your body to digest, so that you get the full benefit of all the nutrients contained in the seeds.  Whole flaxseed will keep at room temperature for up to a year.  Ground flaxseed can be kept in an air-tight container in the refrigerator for up to 90 days.  Flaxseed oil can be purchased as organic or conventional. Flaxseed oil should be kept in the refrigerator.

Recommendations for Flaxseed

Most people can benefit from 1-2 tablespoons of flaxseed a day. Two tablespoons of ground flaxseeds contains 70 calories, 3 grams of fiber ( 12% of the Daily Value), 2.9 grams of omega-3 ( alpha-linolenic acid ALA) (181% of the Daily Value)  and 98 mg of lignans.  It also provides 51mg of magnesium ( 13% of the Daily Value).  It is important to drink plenty of water when consuming flaxseed, because of the fiber content. One tablespoon of flaxseed oil contains 120 calories and 8 grams of omega-3 ( alpha-linolenic acid ALA), (500% of the Daily Value), but no fiber.

Suggested Uses for Flaxseed

  • Sprinkle flaxseed on your morning cereal.
  • Add a teaspoon of flaxseed to mustard or mayonnaise that you spread on your sandwich.
  • Blend flaxseed into smoothies.
  • Mix flaxseed into yogurt.
  • Add flaxseed to tomato sauces and casseroles.
  • Include flaxseed in bread, pancake, and muffin recipes.
  • Add flaxseed oil to salad dressings.

Try my recipe for Easy Flax Bread.

flaxseed and flax bread 022

Cautions with Flaxseed

Certain individuals should avoid flaxseed.  People who have inflammatory bowel conditions such as Chrohn’s disease or irritable bowel syndrome should avoid flaxseed because of its laxative effects. It also should be avoided by  pregnant and breast-feeding women, as well as by women with fibroids, endometriosis, or polycystic ovary disease. People taking blood-thinners should avoid flaxseed because it increases the risk of bleeding.  If you have any health concerns, you should consult your physician before consuming flaxseed.

 

 

 

 

 

A Symphony of Healthful Foods Promotes Longevity

 

Mediterranean foods with kale

Many of us wonder what we should eat to preserve our health and slow down the aging of our mind and body – perhaps more kale, walnuts, or olive oil?  Many foods  such as these are touted as “super foods,” because they are nutrient- dense and rich in compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.  While individual foods can provide us with nutrients  we need for good health, recent research suggests that a whole dietary pattern, such as that of the Mediterranean diet, offers the best protection against disease and the best hope for successful aging.

Recent research published in The BMJ, found that the Mediterranean diet, rich in vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, unrefined grains, olive oil, fish, and a glass of wine with meals, may actually slow down the aging process.  The Mediterranean diet is  founded on the dietary traditions of Crete, Greece and southern Italy in the mid-1900’s, when the rates of chronic diseases among the people living in those countries were among the lowest in the world. The study found that the Mediterranean diet is associated with longer length of telomeres, which are DNA sequences at the end of chromosomes.  Telomeres help to protect the chromosomes from fraying, which can damage the genetic code inside. As people age, telomeres naturally shorten; shortened telomeres are linked with a decreased life expectancy and increased risk of age-related chronic diseases.

The researchers, from Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, looked at data from the Nurses’ Health Study to determine whether there was a link between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and longer telomere length.  There were 4,676 healthy, middle-aged women who participated in the study; they completed detailed food questionnaires and had their blood tested to  determine the length of their telomeres.

The researchers concluded that greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with longer telomeres, a marker of slower aging.  The study authors noted that none of the individual components of the diet were associated with telomere length; rather the whole dietary pattern appeared to be responsible for the benefit.

Previous research has linked the Mediterranean diet with decreased risk of heart attacks, strokes, Alzheimer’s disease, Type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, certain cancers, and overall mortality.

Key components of the Mediterranean diet include the following:

  • High intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, seeds, unrefined grains, herbs and spices
  • High intakes of olive oil  (the primary source of fat)
  • Low intake of saturated fat
  • Moderately high intake of fish and seafood (at least twice per week)
  • Cheese and yogurt, moderate portions, daily to weekly (preferably low-fat or non-fat)
  • No more than  4 eggs per week, including those used in baking and cooking
  • Poultry (moderate portions, every 2 days or weekly)
  • Very low intake of meats and sweets

Several key components of the Mediterranean diet, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, olive oil, and herbs, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may have a positive influence on telomere length. And these components may act in a synergistic way when combined in the diet.  For instance, animal research conducted by Professor John Erdman, of the University of Illinois,  found  that rats with prostate tumors which were fed a  diet enriched with both tomato and broccoli had greater reductions in the weight of their tumors than did those rats fed only tomato or only broccoli.  Research published in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity in February, 2013, found that telomere length increased with decreasing omega-6 to omega-3 ratios in the blood. Increasing dietary intake fish, which is high in omega-3 fatty acids, while limiting intake of omega-6 fatty acids, often found in processed baked goods, can help achieve a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3.  So, it is not just a matter of individual nutrients or foods, but the composition of the diet as a whole.

Factors which have been linked to shorter-than-average telomere length include obesity, sugar-sweetened drinks, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

Here is a sample one-day menu for the Mediterranean diet:

Breakfast

  • Oatmeal made from whole oats, topped with blueberries and flaxseeds
  • A cup of low-fat soy milk

oatmeal with blueberries

Lunch

  • Lentil soup
  • Greek salad ( Romaine lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, olives, low-fat feta cheese with olive oil and vinegar dressing)
  • Slice of whole grain bread

Greek salad 2lentil soup

Snack

  • Greek yogurt (low-fat) with chopped fresh apricots and walnuts OR
  • Hummus (made from garbanzo beans) with raw vegetables (broccoli, carrots, cauliflower)

yogurt with apricots

Dinner

  • Grilled salmon with lemon juice and fresh dill
  • Sautéed spinach with garlic and olive oil
  • Brown rice with herbs
  • A glass of red wine

salmon with spinach 

Dessert

  • Oatmeal-raisin cookie and home-made applesauce

oatmeal raisin cookies

The Mediterranean diet approach extends beyond the actual foods that comprise the diet.  Fresh, homegrown foods are selected over packaged, processed foods. Daily exercise, sharing meals with others, and nurturing a deep appreciation for the pleasures of eating nutritious and delicious food are all part of the Mediterranean lifestyle.  Eating the Mediterranean way can put you on the road to a healthy, long life. Give it a try!

 

Wondrous Walnuts

walnuts2

With the number of older Americans on the rise, the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease is climbing as well.   The toll this disease can take on a family, both emotionally and financially can be devastating. Yet a recent study published in the October 2014 issue of Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease offers some encouraging news – walnuts, which have an uncanny resemblance to the human brain, may offer some protection against this terrible disease. The study found that Alzheimer’s susceptible mice,  who consumed a walnut-enriched diet, showed significant improvement in learning skills and memory compared to similar mice whose diets did not include walnuts.  The omega-3 fatty acids (in the form of alpha- linolenic acid) and the many antioxidants present in the nuts are thought to be responsible for this effect.

In addition to Brain health, there are several other health benefits to be gained from eating walnuts, including the following:

  • Heart health  There is no question about it: walnuts are a heart-friendly food.  One ounce of walnuts (about a quarter cup) provides about 2.5 grams of alpha-linolenic acid, a plant form of omega-3 fatty acids  ( This is more than double the daily recommended amount for adult women and one and a half times the daily recommended amount for adult men,)  These omega-3 fats promote heart health by reducing inflammation in the arteries, lowering blood pressure by relaxing the arteries, and decreasing blood triglycerides.  Walnuts also contain L-arginine, an amino acid that the body converts to nitric oxide, a chemical that relaxes and opens the blood vessels, which helps lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of blockages.  Other helpful nutrients found in walnuts include magnesium, which also helps to lower blood pressure, vitamin E. which acts as a blood thinner, reducing the risk of dangerous clots,  and plant sterols, which lower blood cholesterol levels.
  • Improved mood Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to improve mood and lessen depression.  The high level of alpha-linolenic acid in walnuts should encourage a sunnier mood. The recent study involving Alzheimer’s- susceptible mice also found that those mice given a walnut-enriched diet showed a reduction in anxiety.
  • Smooth skin The omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in walnuts promote healthy skin and can be effective in healing eczema and psoriasis.
  • Possible cancer protection Ellagic acid is an antioxidant phytochemical found in walnuts that has been shown to slow the growth of tumors in cell cultures and laboratory animals. Though it has not yet been proven, ellagic acid may reduce the risk of cancer in humans.
  • Eye health Research suggests that nuts, such as walnuts, along with fish and leafy green vegetables, help defend against vision loss from macular degeneration.
  • Protection against osteoporosis A study published in a 2008 issue of the British Journal of Nutrition found that walnut extract promoted  activity of osteoblasts (bone forming cells), suggesting that walnuts may have a protective role against bone loss in postmenopausal women.
  • Prevention of Type 2 diabetes A study published In the April 2014 issue of the Journal of Nutrition found that women who regularly consumed walnuts were significantly less likely to develop Type 2 diabetes.

Not only do walnuts do wonders for your health, they also can add flavor and crunch to your meals.  You can try the following suggestions for increasing your intake of walnuts:

  • Toss a bag of mixed salad greens with some berries, walnuts, and crumbled feta cheese; top with  a raspberry vinaigrette.
  • Add finely chopped walnuts to baked goods such as zucchini bread, pumpkin muffins, and whole grain pancakes.
  • Add walnuts and raspberries to oatmeal or other breakfast cereal.
  • Blend finely chopped walnuts and a cinnamon into low-fat cream cheese.
  • Layer nonfat yogurt with mixed berries and walnuts for a crunchy parfait .

Try my recipe for Blueberry Walnut Yogurt Parfait.

blueberry walnut parfait 003

 

Fall Garden Greens

kale

My summer garden, which produced an abundance of tomatoes, squash, and green beans, has now withered and a new fall garden has taken its place – a garden I had no intention of planting, but was encouraged to plant by my “garden” friends.  Despite my concerns that I would not have the time to devote to a new garden, I finally relented, curious to see what a fall garden might produce.  The new garden includes several “greens,” which grow well in cooler weather, including the nutrient all-stars, kale and broccoli, and assuming the garden survives, I will have the opportunity to prepare both of these cruciferous wonders in all sorts of exciting, creative ways.

Let’s take a look at the impressive nutrient content of these two vegetables.

Kale: While it is very low in calories, providing only 33 calories per cup of the chopped leaf, kale is chock-full of nutrients, including vitamins A, C, and K, as well as the minerals calcium, magnesium, and potassium. A one-cup serving of chopped raw kale yields 335 mcg RAE of vitamin A, 80 mg of vitamin C, and 472 mcg of vitamin K, which represents more than 100% of the Daily Values for both vitamins A and C, and almost 6 times the Daily Value for vitamin K. Vitamins A and C maintain healthy skin, strengthen our immune system, and protect us against infections, which is especially important now as cold and flu season approaches.  Vitamin K, along with calcium and magnesium, helps keep bones strong. Potassium, which tends to be low in the average American diet, is believed to have a protective effect against many chronic health issues, including hypertension, heart disease, and kidney stones.  A one-cup portion of raw kale provides 7% of the Daily Value for potassium.  Kale also contains a cancer-fighting phytochemical, indole- 3- carbinol, which stimulates enzymes that interfere with the hormone estrogen, limiting its potential to cause estrogen-dependent cancers such as breast, cervical, and uterine.  Kale also is an outstanding source of lutein and zeaxanthin, phytochemicals which defend our eyes against macular degeneration, a condition which can lead to significant loss of vision as we age.

Broccoli: Once cup of chopped raw broccoli contains only 30 calories, yet provides 2 grams of fiber, almost 10% of the Daily Value.  Fiber helps keep both blood cholesterol and blood sugar at healthy levels.  Broccoli also is an excellent source of vitamin C, providing 78 mg per cup, which is 130% of the Daily Value.  It also provides a hefty dose of vitamin K, 89 mcg, per cup, which is 111% of the Daily Value. Broccoli is also a good source of folate, a B vitamin needed for healthy blood and normal cell division. Notably, broccoli is by far, the best dietary source of sulforaphane, a sulfur-containing compound which accelerates the body’s ability to detoxify carcinogens.  Studies with rats and mice have demonstrated the ability of sulforaphane to greatly reduce the occurrence, number, and the size of mammary tumors caused by certain carcinogens.  Sulforaphane’s cancer-fighting properties have been observed in other types of cancer, as well, including colon, prostate, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Sulforaphane also has anti-bacterial properties; it works to destroy Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria which causes gastric ulcers.  Scientists believe that an infection with H. pylori and the resulting ulcers greatly increases the risk of stomach cancer.  Broccoli, like its cousin kale, contains indole-3-carbinol, which defends our bodies against various estrogen-dependent cancers, and it is a good source of the phytochemicals lutein and zeaxanthin which protect our eyesight.

broccoli in garden

Cooking Kale and Broccoli: The cancer-fighting compounds in cruciferous vegetables are easily destroyed by heat, and are best preserved by rapid cooking methods such as steaming or stir-frying in a wok.  Also, since these compounds are water-soluble and can easily be lost in cooking water, you should use as little water as needed to cook these vegetables.  Thoroughly chewing the vegetables also helps to release their cancer-fighting compounds, so chew them well!

Choose Fresh over Frozen: Fresh vegetables are superior to frozen vegetables as a source of cancer-fighting phytochemicals.  Frozen vegetables are subjected to a high-heat blanching process that reduces the amount of cancer-fighting compounds.

Serving Suggestions for Kale:

  • Stir fry it with olive oil and garlic
  • Toss it with other salad greens, red onion,  and cooked quinoa
  • Add it to a fruit smoothie for a super-antioxidant drink (when blended with fruit, the taste of the kale is disguised)

Serving Suggestions for Broccoli:

  • Stir-fry it with tomatoes and asparagus and serve it over rice or pasta
  • Use it in soups, salads, and slaws
  • Serve it as a crudité with hummus

Try my recipe for Kale and Broccoli Stir-Fry.

fall garden 007