Root Causes of Disease

Functional medicine practitioners like myself have been taught to look for the root causes of disease, rather than simply treating a patient’s symptoms. For instance, if a patient comes to me with high blood pressure, I will consider all the factors that may be playing a role in the blood pressure being elevated, and address each and every one (if the patient is willing) before simply recommending prescription medication. Why? Not only do medications have side effects, the underlying causes of the high blood pressure can be negatively impacting the patient’s health in other ways. You don’t want to ignore these factors. An acronym that is used by functional medicine practitioners to consider root causes of disease is STAIN, which stands for stress, toxins, adverse food reactions, infections, and nutritional imbalances. Let’s look at each of these more closely.

STRESS: I used to think that if I ate a healthy diet, exercised regularly, and maintained a healthy weight, I would be guaranteed good health. Unfortunately, I have found that it’s not that simple! There are many other factors that affect our immune system ( and our health) and stress is one of the most impactful. Chronic stress – from our work (such as frequent project deadlines or a difficult boss or coworker) – or from our family ( too many demands or conflicts) – or just unrealistic expectations we may have created for ourselves – can wreak havoc on our health. Our bodies are either in a state of rest and repair, where the parasympathetic system is engaged or in fight-or-flight mode, where the sympathetic nervous system is active. Chronic activation of the fight-or-flight response causes stress hormones – cortisol, adrenal, and norepinephrine- to increase in our blood. Over time, these hormones suppress our immune response, and be a factor in the onset of a number of chronic diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease. Learning to say “no” to extra demands that will threaten our sense of inner calm is so important. Self-care is not selfish; it is essential to our health. Meditation, prayer, journaling, yoga, walks in nature, gardening, visualization techniques, hobbies, and relaxing with friends can all be helpful. Schedule one or more of these activities into your day consistently. Talking with a trained therapist can also be helpful in dealing with current stressors as well as past trauma. I also recommend limiting time spent watching the news and on electronic devices, especially at night! Look for ways to infuse more joy and laughter into your life! Watch the sunset, walk your dog in the park, or dance with your child or grandchild!

TOXINS:

Toxins are abundant in our environment and we need to do our best to avoid them. Between cigarette smoke, car exhaust, mold in our home or workplace, pesticides, artificial colors and hormones in our food, contaminants in our drinking water, and chemicals in our personal care products, there is much to be concerned about! Limiting our exposure to toxins in our water, food, air, and physical environment as much as possible, while also enhancing our detoxification pathways will help us stay healthy. Begin by ensuring you have clean air and water. When I discovered that I was suffering from mold illness a few years ago, we had both the air conditioning ducts and crawl space in our home remediated, and I purchased several high-quality air filters for as well. I also started on a binder ( capsule) to help remove the toxins and began twice-weekly sessions at an infrared sauna to induce sweating to help rid my body of the mycotoxins. These strategies all helped, but eliminating the toxin ( the mold) was the most critical. I also made sure I was getting plenty of protein and B vitamins which are essential to the liver’s detoxification processes. It may be helpful to hire an Environmental Health consultant to come check out your home for possible environmental hazards, including mold and EMFs. (electromagnetic fields). You may want to invest in a whole-home water filtration system or purchase a counter-top water filter. The Environmental Working Group’s website http://www.ewg.org, provides a lot of great information on how to limit your toxic exposures from food, tap water, and personal care products. You can download a list of the “Dirty Dozen and Clean Fifteen” – the dirtiest and cleanest fruits and vegetables of 2021. Those on the dirty list you should try to buy organic, if possible. BeautyCounter (www.beautycounter.com) and Skin Worship (www.skinworship.com) are two companies that sell clean, fragrance-free, toxin-free personal care products, including facial cleansers, moisturizers, and make-up. When considering toxins you need to avoid in your life, remember that there are toxic people too. Avoid spending time with people who leave you feeling depressed and drained.

ADVERSE FOOD REACTIONS

Food allergies and intolerances also affect our health. The most common allergens are peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, fish, milk, eggs, wheat, and soy. Food allergies invoke an immune response and cause symptoms such as hives, rashes, headaches, upset stomach, congestion, and difficulty breathing. In the most serious cases, a life-threatening anaphylaxis occurs and requires the administration of adrenaline to counter the effects of the allergen. Food intolerances do not stimulate the production of antibodies like food allergies do, but still cause symptoms. For example, lactose intolerance is caused by deficiency of lactase, the enzyme needed to break down the sugar lactose. In this case, the ingestion of lactose-containing food like milk can cause symptoms of gas and abdominal discomfort. Celiac disease is caused by the overreaction of the immune system to the protein gluten found in foods such as bread, pasta, and crackers. Symptoms include diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and anemia. In addition to the most common food allergies, people can have food sensitivities to proteins in a wide variety of foods including beans, fruits, grains, nuts and seeds, vegetables, and herbs and spices, which trigger the release of IgG antibodies. IgG food testing using a patient’s blood can determine if food reactions are contributing to their physical or mental symptoms. Eliminating all identified IgG positive foods after testing reduces stress on the immune system, lowers inflammation in the body, and helps to heal “leaky gut.” Remember, when our gut is compromised, our immune system is also impaired. Food allergy testing can pinpoint dietary causes of a patient’s symptoms and by eliminating the offending foods, they can heal and feel better. Nutrigenetic testing can give additional information regarding how a patient’s unique genetic profile impacts their need for nutrients and response to food components. For example, my results showed that a high sodium intake is likely to increase my blood pressure; this is not true for everyone.

INFECTIONS

Chronic infections can also be an underlying factor in poor health. These can be caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi. A patient who is suffering from what they believe is just an “irritable” bowel may actually have an intestinal infection. For example, if a patient has an overgrowth of Candida yeast in their intestines, it can cause “leaky gut” and may also contribute to irritable bowel syndrome ( with abdominal pain and constipation or diarrhea), as well as depression, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, and migraines. There are a number of tests that can determine if Candida or another infectious agent is present, including a stool test or organic acids test. Identifying and treating the infection will not only help the patient feel better, but will take stress off of the immune system. Another type of infection that can cause problems is an infected tooth, which can cause bacteria to travel through the digestive tract, contributing to dysbiosis, as well as burdening the immune system. Root canals can trap bacteria under the tooth, which breed, and spread throughout the body. I recommend patients see a biological dentist, who treats patients with the understanding that dental health affects a person’s entire health and treats patients using a natural approach.

NUTRITIONAL IMBALANCES

When someone is eating the standard American diet ( sometimes referred to as the SAD diet), they are most likely not getting a diet that is adequate in nutrients, fiber, and phytochemicals, but instead is full of processed foods containing excessive amounts of sugar, sodium, and unhealthy fats. This type of diet is also likely to contain potentially dangerous preservatives, artificial flavors, dyes, and emulsifiers. And it is likely not to contain the right balance of carbohydrate, protein, and fat for most people. It is also likely to have a higher glycemic load that is recommended for optimal health and disease prevention. A food frequency questionnaire can point to nutrients that may be deficient in a person’s diet, and lab testing can confirm or deny those findings. Nutrigenetic testing can reveal genetic SNPs ( single nucleotide polymorphisms) that can increase an individual’s need for certain nutrients. When a patient adopts a diet based on clean, whole foods, that are mostly plant-based, rich in fiber and phytonutrients, and devoid of harmful additives, they are likely to see their health improve. Supplementing them with vitamins and minerals for which they may be at risk of deficiency can also be helpful. We know that the immune system requires a wide range of nutrients to function optimally and deficiencies can make us more susceptible to illness. There is a clear link between certain nutrient deficiencies and certain diseases; for instance, deficiencies of vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin K increase the risk of osteoporosis. Ensuring nutritional adequacy is a key to vibrant health and disease prevention.

Let’s go back to the root causes of disease and my example of high blood pressure. In a patient with high blood pressure, I would consider all the potential underlying factors – stress, toxins, adverse food reactions, infections, and nutritional imbalances. The most likely culprits are stress and nutritional imbalances. Therefore, I would recommend that the patient choose a variety of strategies to lower their stress and to improve their diet. They could begin by making a list of the major stressors in their life and identify ways to address each one. As far as diet, limiting sodium while at the same time increasing potassium intake can help improve blood pressure, particularly if they have a genetic SNP which causes sodium to increase their blood pressure. If they are overweight, lowering their calorie intake to achieve weight loss, can also help lower blood pressure. Regular daily exercise such as walking or jogging can be helpful. Certain functional foods can help lower blood pressure, as well, including dark chocolate, hibiscus tea, and beet juice.

In summary, symptoms in our bodies have root causes and do not just happen randomly. Identifying and addressing these causes with a natural approach is always a good place to start, and often all that is needed.

Lessons from Okinawa

Lisa in Okinawa

My daughter Lisa has always loved to travel and enjoyed seeking adventure in a new place.  When she was in sixth grade, she asked my husband and me if she could go to a summer sleep-away camp in New Hampshire (about a five hour drive from our home in New Jersey).  She wanted to stay not two weeks, like most of her friends attending the camp, but four weeks! She continued to attend the camp each summer for four weeks at a time, and ultimately became a member of the leadership development program, for the last two summers, when she stayed almost the entire summer, and spent 48 hours alone on an island.  In college, she studied abroad a couple of different times, visiting London, Madrid, Barcelona, and parts of Africa. During the last few years she has traveled to Costa Rica, the Galapagos Islands, and Australia.  Her latest trip was to Japan, from which she just returned.  She visited Tokyo and Hiroshima and ended the trip with a two-day junket to Okinawa, which she decided to visit, in part, I believe, because she has heard me speak about it so often as a place known for the amazing health and longevity of its people.

Okinawan beach - Lisa

The Okinawan beach

So what makes Okinawa so special and what did Lisa learn there?

Okinawa is known as one of the Blue Zones, areas of the world where people not only live remarkably long, but also enjoy a terrific quality of life. The active lifestyle, nutritious diet, and social customs of the Okinawans are all thought to contribute to their vibrancy. Okinawa has a high rate of centenarians ( people who live to be 100 or more), and it not unusual for Okinawan elders to be biking, surfing, fishing, or gardening well into their nineties. They also have a strong social network and get together frequently with friends and family to enjoy music, including karyoke, and attend dance festivals..  Also important to the Okinawans is to have a sense of purpose, ikigai – the reason to get up each morning.

Because of the remarkable health and longevity of these Japanese,  scientists have closely examined their  diet practices, hoping to glean some wisdom that others might use to enhance their own well-being. The Okinawans have a saying, Ishoku-dogen, which means, “food and medicine from the same source.”

Here are a few of the diet practices of the Okinawan elders:

  1. They practice mindfulness and moderation regarding their food intake.  Before each meal they say, Hara hachi bu, which means, “Eat until you are 80 percent full.” This practice helps keep their weight in a healthful range, which is a huge factor in disease prevention.  Many of their favorite foods, especially vegetables, have a low caloric density, meaning they provide few calories relative to the weight of the food.  This allows the Okinawans to eat a relatively large volume of food, which contributes to satiety, without the ingestion of too many calories. ( e.g, a large bowl of salad versus a small bag of potato chips).
  2. They eat a largely plant-based diet, rich in vegetables, supplemented with grains, fruits, and small amounts of pork, fish (including  sea bream, salmon, shrimp, and mackerel), and eggs. About two-thirds of the traditional diet consists of organic vegetables that the Okinawans grow themselves. Vegetables are loaded with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and phytonutrients that promote health and deter disease. Popular vegetables include leafy greens, carrots, okra, daikon ( a Japanese radish), green onions, Shitake mushrooms, tomatoes, peppers, bean sprouts, bamboo shoots, cabbage, and goya (a bitter-tasting gourd). Unfortunately, the Okinawans generally eat white rice.  This is an area of the diet that could be improved by substituting whole brown rice, which provides more fiber and nutrients and has a lower glycemic index.  Soba noodles and millet are other popular, nutritious grains. Popular fruits include watermelons, bananas, oranges, papayas, pumpkins, pineapples, and hirami lemons ( a cross between an orange, tangerine, and lemon.)
  3. They enjoy their purple sweet potatoes. The sweet potato ( imo) was a staple in the Okinawan diet from the 1600’s to the 1960’s. Around 1900 Okinawans obtained about 80% of their calories from sweet potatoes, often eating them with every meal! While sweet potatoes are still eaten today, they are not as popular as they once were.  Sweet potatoes are extremely nutrient-dense. Like the orange-flesh sweet potatoes, purple sweet potatoes are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C, fiber,  potassium, and iron. The purple variety obtain their color from phytonutrients known as anthocyanidins.  They have been shown to kill the stem cells that lead to colon cancer. The purple potatoes also appear to enhance the healthy gut bacteria, which play an important role in our immunity.
  4. They consume a lot of soy, including miso soup, tofu, and natto ( traditional fermented soybeans). Okinawans eat about three ounces of soy products daily.  Miso soup is often eaten at breakfast, and tofu is often combined with vegetables in stir-fry dishes consumed later in the day. Natto is used as a condiment. Soy protein is thought to benefit the heart by helping to lower blood cholesterol. Natto is high in vitamin K2, which benefits both the heart and the bones. High intakes of natto are associated with better bone density and lower fracture rates in women.
  5. Goya, also called  bitter melon, is essential to Okinawan cuisine. Goya grows easily in Okinawan gardens and is often used in stir-fry dishes with tofu and other vegetables.  It is rich in vitamin C and contains compounds that regulate blood sugar. Locals rub the leaves of the plant on their skin to treat heat rash and drink its juice to treat a variety of ailments.
  6. They eat soba noodles made from buckwheat. Buckwheat is a gluten-free grain that is rich in both fiber and protein, which help to balance blood sugar levels. It is also rich in rutin, a flavonoid also found in citrus fruits, apple peels, and parsley, that helps lower cholesterol and blood pressure and also strengthens capillary walls.
  7. They consume a variety of seaweed including kombu ( also known as kelp), wakame, and hijiki. Seaweed is a good source of minerals including iodine, iron, and calcium. These brown seaweeds contain a compound called fuicodan, which has proven anti-tumor properties and has been shown to boost the immune system by  stimulating the production of interleukins and interferon.
  8. They season their food with fresh, local herbs and spices including mugwort, ginger, turmeric, and garlic. Mugwort grows like a weed in Okinawa. Its leaves can be used to season rice and make tea.  It contains a powerful natural substance that fights malaria, and locals use it to treat fevers. Turmeric is a golden root that is grated to flavor soup and and is also used to make tea. Scientific research has shown that curcumin, the key phytonutrient in turmeric, has powerful anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties and also protects against heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease.
  9. They aim to eat at least five different colors at each meal, a goal called shojun ryori.   A variety of colorful foods at each meal helps insure the ingestion of several different phytonutrients, as many phytonutrients also serve as plant pigments. Examples include beta-carotene in orange sweet potatoes, lycopene in red peppers, anthocyanins in purple cabbage, indoles in broccoli, and allicin in garlic.
  10. They drink calcium-rich water, green tea, jasmine tea, and an alcoholic beverage called awamori, a fermented rice wine. The naturally calcium-rich water helps strengthen the bones, lowering the risk of osteoporosis. Green tea is rich in catechins,  antioxidants that help protect against cancer.  Regular consumption of green tea is associated with better muscle strength as people age. Jasmine tea has antibacterial and antiviral properties and has been used in aromotherapy to relieve stress and depression.
  11. They don’t eat processed food. By eliminating processed food, they avoid unhealthy amounts of added sugar, sodium, trans fats, and chemical preservatives.

Lisa confirmed that many Okinawans actually do eat this way, although there were some less-nutritious options available on the restaurant menu as well, including fried chicken wings, chicken gizzards, fried pork, and white rice.

For one of her meals, Lisa enjoyed several small plates, including salmon sashimi;  buckwheat soba noodles with ginger, fried okra, seaweed, scallions, and chili peppers; and white fish with vegetables, including snow pea, carrot, and purple sweet potato.  All of the items were artfully arranged on their plates.

Okinawa sashimi

Salmon sashimi

Okinawa okra

Buckwheat soba noodles with ginger, fried okra, seaweed, scallions, and chili pepper

Salmon sashimi with snow pea, carrot, and purple sweet potato

White fish with peas, carrots and purple sweet potato

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Like Lisa, I personally find the traditional Okinawan diet and way of life to be a great inspiration for healthful, joyful living. I was excited to try an Okinawan recipe from 50 Secrets of the World’s Longest Living People by Sally Beare. You too might like to try my adapted recipe, Sauteed Tofu and Vegetables Recipe. It features a great mix of delicious, nutrient-dense ingredients, including cabbage, carrots, bean sprouts, onions, ginger, garlic, and tofu. It tastes great served over brown rice too! Enjoy!

Sauteed Vegetables and Tofu

Sauteed Tofu and Vegetables

Beet Power

beets5

Red beets – rich in betacyanins

I have to admit that beets have never been a favorite food of mine. My Dad, on the other hand,  just loves beets, and he asks me almost every spring, “Paula, when are you planting your beets?”  I have always reminded him that I don’t like beets and am not planning to plant them ( yet again.) (Sweet potatoes, squash, and tomatoes are always in my garden.) However, maybe this year I will actually plant some beets – especially since I have learned that they offer some great health benefits.  Plus, I’m sure I can learn to like them if I try preparing them a few different ways.  And, of course, Dad would be happy too.

Beets are root vegetables with two parts, the bulbs and the leafy green leaves. They are members of the Beta vulgaris botanical species. ( Sugar beets and Swiss chard are also members.) While most beets you find in the supermarket are red beets, there are also white and golden varieties.

What nutrients are found in beets and beet greens?

Beet roots are an excellent source of the vitamin folate, and also offer modest amounts of fiber, iron, and potassium.  One beet ( 2″ in diameter) provides 89 micrograms of folate (22% of the Daily Value for both men and women) . Folate helps repair damaged DNA,  lowering the risk of cancer-causing mutations. Fiber helps regulate blood sugar, iron helps prevent anemia, and potassium helps control blood pressure. Red beets derive their red color not from lycopene ( found in tomatoes) nor from anthocyanins ( found in eggplant), but from unique phytonutrients known as betacyanins, which have strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and detoxifying properties. In particular, betacyanins help to eliminate environmental toxins from the liver, keeping it healthy, and limit the oxidation of LDL cholesterol in the blood,  which can lead to plaque build-up in the arteries and contribute to heart disease. One betacyanin known as betanin is used as a red food colorant.

Beet greens are loaded with vitamin K ( 1/2 cup of cooked beet greens provides 346 micrograms of vitamin K, which is more than 3 1/2 times the daily recommended intake for women and more than 2 1/2 times the daily recommended intake for men). Vitamin K promotes both bone and heart health. Beet greens are also rich in vitamin A, which is necessary for proper immune function, as well as  the health of the eyes and skin. Beet greens are a great source of several minerals, including calcium, potassium, copper, iron, and magnesium.

What are the health benefits associated with drinking beet juice?

Beet juice has been shown to lower blood pressure. An Australian study published in Nutrition Journal found that men who drank 17.6 ounces of a beet juice beverage ( about 3/4 beet juice and 1/4 apple juice)  saw a drop of 4-5 points in their systolic blood pressure six hours later. The nitrates in beets are thought to be responsible for the effect.  Nitrates from beets and leafy green vegetables are converted in the body to nitric oxide, which relaxes the blood vessels and dilates them. This helps blood flow more easily though the vessels and lowers blood pressure.

Beet juice also helps your body respond better to exercise. One study involved 10 men who engaged in moderate- or severe- exercise on 6 different occasions after drinking 70, 140, or 280 ml of beet juice or a placebo.  While neither the placebo nor the 70 ml dose of beet juice had any effect,  the 140 ml dose ( about 1/2 cup) reduced oxygen consumption by 1.7 % during moderate exercise and and 280 ml  dose ( a little more than 1 cup) reduced it by 3.0%.  In addition, the time it took for the muscles to become fatigued was extended by 14% and 12%, respectively for the 140 ml and 280 ml doses of beet juice.

How do I use beets and their greens?

Beets can be eaten raw.  Just peel and grate them into a salad for added crunch and color. They also can be boiled or roasted.  When boiling beets, it is best to leave their skins on during cooking, so that they don’t “bleed” their red juices.  Beets are ready when you can easily pierce them with the tip of a sharp knife. Then you can drain them, run them under cold water briefly, and peel them. Once peeled, they can be cut into slices, quarters, or cubes. Warm, cooked beets can be served with a splash of lemon or orange juice and herbs.  (Acid from citrus juices or vinegar helps to retain their bright red color.) Chilled cooked beets can be added to salads; they work well with oranges, carrots, or chickpeas. They also can be pureed to make a beet soup known as borscht or a hummus-like dip. Raw beet greens can be added to a leafy salad.  They also can be lightly steamed, like spinach or kale.

With so many ways to eat beets, surely you can find one you enjoy!

You can start by trying this beautiful ruby colored beet dip.  Serve it with crackers, pita bread wedges, or crudites or use it as a pretty topping for your baked potato.

beet dip

You can get the recipe : Beet Dip.

Note: Red beets can stain your hands and clothes, so you may wish to wear an apron and proceed with caution when preparing this dish.

 

 

 

Magical Mushrooms

magical mushrooms

Mushrooms have been revered throughout history for their culinary and medicinal benefits.  Asian cultures in particular have used these fungi  for thousands of years as both food and medicine, and they remain so popular today that they are sold by street vendors,  similar to how we sell hot dogs and bagels in the United States.  The ancient Egyptians believed so strongly in the healing properties of mushrooms that they thought eating them could make you immortal. France was among the first nations to cultivate mushrooms, followed by England, and then the United States in the late 1800’s.

Science is confirming what natural healers have known and practiced for a long time regarding mushrooms.   There are indeed numerous health benefits associated with regular consumption of mushrooms, including the Shitake, Maitake, Reishi,  Enoki, Portobello, and white button varieties.

Some of the benefits include the following:

  1. Improved immune function and defense against cancer – Shiitake mushrooms contain lentinan,  a polysaccharide or complex sugar, that is similar in structure to bacteria.  When you eat these mushrooms, your immune system produces more white blood cells to fight infection. Lentinan also has anti-tumor properties. Shiitake mushrooms have long been valued in Japan for their ability to shrink tumors and are often used as an adjunct to chemotherapy to support the immune system. They are gaining attention by cancer researchers around the world. Maitake mushrooms also have a long reputation as cancer-fighters. Like Shiitake mushrooms, they contain lentinan – as well as a polysaccharide called beta-D-glucan, or D-fraction, which has effectively shrunk tumors in lab animals. According to a study published in the Journal of Nutrition, white button mushrooms – as well as Shiitake, portabello, crimini, and baby button mushrooms- contain phytochemicals that inhibit an enzyme that produces estrogen within the breast cells.  Estrogen is a key factor in the development of breast cancer, and the suppression of estrogen production by these phytochemicals may  provide cancer protection in postmenopausal women. Enokis, which are white and spindly, contain lentinan, as well as proflamin, another anti-cancer compound that stimulates immune cells to attack cancer cells more vigorously. A  2009 Australian study found that Chinese women who ate 10 grams ( about 3/4 cup) of fresh mushrooms daily had a 64% lower risk of breast cancer compared to non-consumers. Those who also drank green tea in the amount of 1 gram of infused leaves per day reduced their risk of breast cancer by 89%! The high levels of zinc and selenium in mushrooms also support healthy immune function,
  2. Help with weight loss A study conducted by researchers at Johns Hopkins  Bloomberg School of Public Health found that substituting 1 cup of white button mushrooms for red meat can be a useful strategy for enhancing weight loss.  At the end of the one-year study, those in the intervention groups lost 7 pounds and showed improvements in body composition compared to participants on the control diet.  Why? Differences in nutrient composition helped account for the different results. A one-cup serving of cooked mushrooms contains only 44 calories,  1 gram of fat,  and 3 grams of fiber, whereas a medium hamburger patty provides about 200 calories, 14 grams of fat, and no fiber. Part of the fiber in mushrooms is in the form of beta-glucan ( a soluble fiber also found in oats, barley, and rye) which increases satiety or sense of fullness, and diminishes hunger.
  3. Lowering of cholesterol A compound in Shiitake mushrooms called eritadenine has been shown to lower cholesterol in human and animal studies conducted in Japan. Also, beta-glucan interferes with the absorption of dietary cholesterol, which helps keep blood cholesterol low. Substituting mushrooms for meat will not only help with weight control, but also will promote healthy cholesterol levels.
  4. Improvement of skin conditions and anti-aging benefits Because of their anti-inflammatory properties, mushrooms can improve acne, rosacea, and eczema. Most varieties of mushrooms contain ergothionine, an amino acid that reduces inflammation.  They also are very high in the mineral selenium ( one cup of cooked mushrooms provides 33% of the Daily Value), which acts as an antioxidant that helps protect the skin. Studies have shown that oral consumption of Kombucha mushrooms fights free radical damage and topical application can hinder glycation- a process where excess sugar binds collagen in the skin, leaving it brittle and wrinkled. Skincare companies such as Aveeno and Origins have started adding Reishi mushroom extracts to their products.

With all the amazing benefits of mushrooms, you may wish to add them regularly to your meals.  Try Including mushrooms in your morning omelette along with some scallions and red pepper.  Stir-fry a variety of mushrooms with other vegetables in a wok for a tasty side dish. Toss them into your pasta dishes and add them on top of your pizzas. A large grilled portobello mushroom makes  a great replacement for a burger.  Dress it with some avocado, onion, and tomato for added flavor and nutrition. And there is always delicious mushroom soup!

The Wonders of Wakame

wakame-seaweed

Are you looking for a new food to try in 2017? Explore a new taste with a wakame salad! Wakame is an edible brown seaweed commonly used in Japanese, Korean, and Chinese cuisines that is quickly gaining popularity in the U.S. due to its array of health-promoting properties.  In Japan it is used as a blood purifier and is appreciated for its ability to nourish the skin and hair.  Studies with mice suggest that a carotenoid in wakame called fucoxanthin exerts both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties.  Fucoxanthin and other compounds in wakame appear to promote cardiovascular health by limiting inflammation and improving blood cholesterol levels. A polysaccharide known as fucoidan found in wakame and other brown seaweeds ( such as kombu and hijiki) has proven antitumor and immunity-enhancing properties.  Results of a 2013 study conducted by researchers at the University of California suggest that wakame may lower the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Wakame is a rich source of minerals, including iodine, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Iodine is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism; potassium helps keep blood pressure in check; calcium and magnesium support bone health; and iron allows for production of healthy red blood cells.

Wakame can be boiled to make a mineral-rich soup broth or rehydrated in a bowl of lukewarm water and then combined with other ingredients to make a nutritious salad. Here is one to try.

Wakame-Arugula Salad

Soak 2 or 3 strips of dry wakame in lukewarm water for about 10 minutes; drain the wakame and place in a bowl of boiling water briefly and then run cold water over it to bring out the greenish color.

Drain the wakame and then chop it into small strips.

Place the strips in a small bowl; add a couple tablespoons each of soy sauce, rice vinegar, and lemon juice to the wakame; allow it to marinate about 10 minutes.

Arrange a salad plate with arugula, avocado slices, and chopped walnuts.

Add the wakame.

Drizzle the plate with extra-virgin olive oil and lemon juice.

Add sea salt and pepper to taste.wakame-arugula-salad2

Toss the Salt Shaker – Add Some Herbs

salt shaker 2

According to the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans, “Healthy eating patterns limit sodium.”  Adults and children ages 14 and older are advised to limit their intake of sodium to less than 2,300 mg (about one teaspoon) per day, and children younger than 14 should consume even less.  Unfortunately, the average daily intake of sodium in the U.S. for those ages 1 year and older is 3,440 mg, which is about one and a half times the recommended upper limit.  For adult men, the average daily intake is 4,240 mg, while for adult women the average daily intake is 2,980 mg.  According to the American Heart Association, nine out of ten Americans consume too much sodium.

Where does all this sodium come from?  The majority is added during commercial food processing and preparation. According to the latest Dietary Guidelines, mixed dishes, which include burgers, sandwiches, and tacos; rice, pasta, and grain dishes; pizza, meat, poultry, and seafood dishes, and soups – account for about half of the sodium consumed in the U.S. The remainder comes from sodium that naturally occurs in food or from salt added at home during cooking or at the table from a salt shaker.

Why should you be concerned about your sodium intake?

  • A high intake of sodium can increase your blood pressure, and high blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death in women in the U.S., contributing to almost 200,000 female deaths each year, according to the American Heart Association.
  • Excessive intake of sodium/salt can increase your risk for heart failure, stroke, kidney disease, osteoporosis, stomach cancer, kidney stones, enlarged heart muscle, and headaches.
  • Too much sodium/salt can increase fluid retention, which can lead to puffiness, bloating, and weight gain.

What are some strategies to lower your sodium intake?

  • Eat at home more often; cook from scratch to control the sodium content of dishes.
  • Use lemon juice, herbs, and spices to flavor food, instead of salt.
  • Increase the proportion of fresh or frozen vegetables in your meals; these are very low in sodium.
  • When grocery shopping, use the Nutrition Facts panel to compare the sodium content of foods and select those with less sodium.
  • Buy low-sodium, reduced sodium, or no-salt-added versions of products if available ( for instance, unsalted peanuts).
  • Choose fresh poultry, seafood, pork, and lean meat instead of processed meat and poultry.
  • Avoid dishes with sauces and  mixes, as well as “instant” products, including flavored rice, instant noodles, and ready-made pasta.

Why use lemon, herbs, and spices?

  • Lemon juice: one tablespoon provides 8% of the Daily Value for immune-boosting vitamin C and only 3 calories.; it contains no sodium. It gives a nice “kick” to salads and soups.
  • Herbs: the American Cancer Institute has identified over 20 herbs with anti-cancer properties, including basil, parsley, cilantro, thyme, and oregano. Many herbs have antimicrobial properties, which protect us against infections. Some herbs are good sources of vitamins; for example, two tablespoons of fresh parsley provides over 100% of the Daily Value for vitamin K, which is important for bone and heart health, as well as 16% of the Daily Value for vitamin C.  Herbs can be used to add taste and color to scrambled eggs, soups, salads, meats, poultry, and fish.

    parsley

    Flat-leaf parsley

  • Spices: spices such as cinnamon, ginger, and turmeric not only make food tastier, they also make it healthier. Cinnamon helps control blood sugar, ginger can soothe arthritis pain, and turmeric can defend against inflammatory diseases, including  heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes.

    turmeric

    Turmeric

Keeping your sodium intake within the recommended limit can be challenging, but it is possible.  Just  watch the sodium content of foods you buy, favoring fresh over processed,  eat at home more often,  and limit the amount of salt you add to food – flavoring dishes with lemon juice and a variety of herbs and spices. You may be surprised how fun it is to appreciate new flavors.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six Healthy Diet Trends

green tea with lemon 002

Matcha green tea

 

Diet trends cover everything from which foods we’re eating more and less of – to where we’re getting our food from and how we’re preparing it. Some recent trends promise a quick-fix – like the detox juice cleanse, and some offer indulgent fun – like the “no dinner, just a dessert-tasting, please.”  These are examples of trends that might be dangerous over the long haul. Juice cleanses can lead to nutritional deficiencies (such as protein, calcium, iron),  and too many desserts can increase both your waist size and your weight.

Fortunately, in the past couple of years we have witnessed a shift away from fast food and sugar-sweetened sodas (McDonald’s and PepsiCo have reported declining sales) and towards farm-fresh produce and “clean” eating (consuming food that is unprocessed or less processed with few additives.) There also has been an increase in interest in nuts, seeds, soy, gluten-free grains, dairy-free beverages (such as soy milk, almond milk, and coconut milk) and vegetarian entrees.  The low-carb, low-fat diet war has lost its intensity, and people are focusing more on “good” carbs and “good” fats.

Consistent with these trends, the newly released Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015-2020 advises Americans to choose plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and healthful oils and to limit their intakes of added sugars, saturated and trans fats, and sodium. Americans are advised to limit their intakes of both saturated fat and added sugars to less than 10 percent of total calories.  Sodium intake should be no more than 2,300 milligrams (about a teaspoon of salt) a day. Unfortunately, according to a recent report by the CDC, more than 96 percent of men and more than 80 percent of women consume more than this amount of sodium.  Make it a New Year’s resolution to keep your diet based on fresh, unprocessed foods and avoid eating too many restaurant meals, which can be high in calories, harmful fats, added sugars, and sodium.

Here is a look at six healthy diet trends for 2016.   You might want to give one or two of them a try.

1.) Fresh meal delivery –  companies such as HelloFresh and Blue Apron take the stress out of fixing healthful meals at home by delivering right to your doorstep kits filled with exactly what you need to prepare a tasty meal from fresh, unprocessed ingredients.  As a bonus, there is much less food waste, and you don’t have to spend as much time shopping. Furthermore, meals are generally seasoned with herbs and spices instead of salt.

2.) Pulses – “Pulses” is an umbrella term for 12 crops, including dry beans, dry peas, chickpeas, and lentils.  The United Nations has declared 2016 to be the International Year of Pulses. Pulses are rich in protein and fiber and packed with antioxidants that can help deter diseases such as heart disease and cancer.

3.) Bitter vegetables – consumers like to try new flavors, and according to marker research from Mintel, this year more restaurants plan to offer vegetables with bitter flavors, such as Brussels sprouts and collard greens. Many bitter vegetables are in the cruciferous family of vegetables, and are loaded with cancer-fighting phytochemicals.

4.) The Mediterranean Diet – the Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes,  nuts, fish, olive oil, herbs and spices, and even includes red wine in moderation.  It is limited in red meat and sugars.  Research continues to support the notion that this is a diet to choose for optimal health and disease prevention. According to the Mayo clinic, an analysis of more than 1.5 million healthy adults demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet was associated with a reduced risk of death from heart disease and cancer, as well as a lower incidence of both Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. The analysis found that the diet cut the risk of developing breast cancer by two-thirds.

5.) Probiotics – gut health is expected to be a popular concern this year; there is a lot of research examining the gut-brain connection and the gut-weight connection.  Research suggests that the healthy bacteria found in  yogurt, kefir, and fermented foods such as sauerkraut and kimchi might help regulate weight, boost immunity, and even improve mental health.

6.) Matcha (green tea powder) – in case you are looking for a new, healthful beverage, consider brewing a cup of matcha. It is a type of Japanese green tea, made from young leaves, which are steamed, unlike other green teas.  (The steaming helps preserve the polyphenol catechins, powerful antioxidants that may protect against cancer.)   Once the leaves have been steamed, their stems are removed and they are air-dried and ground into a fine powder. Matcha tea is made by dissolving the bright green powder into hot water. Traditionally, a bamboo whisk is used to properly blend the powder into the water, but a milk frother works well too. Matcha may enhance your ability to focus and improve your mood due to its combination of caffeine and L-theanine, an amino acid known for its ability to reduce anxiety. The result is a calm, focused energy.

Consider jumping on the bandwagon with one or more of these latest diet trends.

 

 

 

 

 

Eight Reasons to Eat Flaxseed

Whole flaxseed

Whole flaxseed

Adding  tiny flaxseeds to your foods can provide big benefits for your health. Not only does flax help protect you against several common diseases, it also provides beauty benefits for your skin and hair.  Flaxseed is the seed of the plant Linum usitatissimum which has been treasured and cultivated around the world for thousands of years.  As early as 3000 BC, flaxseed was grown in Babylon. In the eighth century, King Charlemagne believed so strongly in the goodness of flaxseed, that he passed laws mandating that his subjects consume it.  In recent years, research has fueled a renewed interest in the benefits of  flaxseed, and it is appearing on more grocery shelves as whole and ground flaxseed, flax oil, flax oil supplements, and even added to foods such as cereals, frozen waffles, and cookies.  In 2015, perhaps you should discover the many wonders of flax and find ways to add it to your diet.

What makes flaxseed so amazingly healthful? It is brimming with important nutrients including alpha-linolenic acid ( a plant omega-3 fatty acid),  fiber, and lignans, phytochemicals which have cancer-protective properties.  It also is a good source of the minerals magnesium, iron, and zinc, as well as the B-vitamin thiamin. It imparts a nutty flavor to foods and can be sprinkled on a variety of foods including cereals, salads, yogurts, and cooked vegetables and can be included in recipes for casseroles and baked goods.  Some of the benefits of consuming flaxseed include the following:

  1. Heart health: The soluble fiber in flaxseed helps lower LDL (bad) cholesterol which can promote plaque build-up in the arteries. The anti-inflammatory effect of the alpha-linolenic acid also promotes heart health.
  2. Cancer protection: Flaxseed is one of the best sources of lignans, plant compounds that act like a weak form of estrogen and are thought to lower the risk of breast, colon, and prostate cancer. The lignans help block enzymes involved in hormone metabolism, which promotes the growth and spread of cancer cells.  A Canadian study published in 2013 in Cancer Causes Control found that consumption of flaxseed was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of breast cancer. In animal studies, alphalinolenic acid, the plant omega-3 fatty acid found in flaxseed, has deterred cancer incidence and growth.
  3. Digestive health: The fiber in flaxseed has a laxative effect, and can help prevent constipation and maintain bowel regularity.
  4. Blood sugar control: The fiber in flaxseed helps keep blood sugar levels steady. A study published in 2011 in the Journal of Dietary Supplements found that diabetic patients who consumed a tablespoon of ground flaxseeds every day for a month saw a significant drop in both their fasting blood sugar levels and A1C levels, compared to those in the control group.  Flax may help control blood sugar by improving insulin insensitivity in people who are glucose intolerant.
  5. Strong bones: a study published in the International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition, and Public Health in 2009 found that diabetic and menopause-induced rats fed flaxseed oil showed a delay in bone loss as a result of the omega-3 fatty acids; the researchers recommended that human research be conducted to confirm the use of flaxseed oil to improve bone health and to prevent osteoporosis.
  6. Weight control: when flax is ingested, it expands, making you feel fuller. Research suggests that adding flaxseed to your daily diet can result in a slimmer waistline, as well.
  7. Enhanced immune function: the alpha-linolenic acid decreases inflammation, which helps the immune system function better. Flaxseed may help inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. The mineral zinc also helps bolster the immune system.
  8. Healthier skin, hair, and eyes: the omega-3 fatty acids help treat chronic skin conditions, including rosacea, eczema, acne, and skin allergies. They seems to keep the skin moisturized and smooth from the inside out. They also nourish skin follicles, and keep hair strong and healthy. They also combat dry eyes by helping the body produce more tears naturally and keeping the eyes lubricated.

Buying Flaxseed

Flax can be found in some conventional grocery stores and in health food stores.  You can buy the seeds either whole or ground. If you buy the whole seeds, you can grind them yourself in a coffee grinder, food processor, or blender.  Grinding the seeds makes them easier for your body to digest, so that you get the full benefit of all the nutrients contained in the seeds.  Whole flaxseed will keep at room temperature for up to a year.  Ground flaxseed can be kept in an air-tight container in the refrigerator for up to 90 days.  Flaxseed oil can be purchased as organic or conventional. Flaxseed oil should be kept in the refrigerator.

Recommendations for Flaxseed

Most people can benefit from 1-2 tablespoons of flaxseed a day. Two tablespoons of ground flaxseeds contains 70 calories, 3 grams of fiber ( 12% of the Daily Value), 2.9 grams of omega-3 ( alpha-linolenic acid ALA) (181% of the Daily Value)  and 98 mg of lignans.  It also provides 51mg of magnesium ( 13% of the Daily Value).  It is important to drink plenty of water when consuming flaxseed, because of the fiber content. One tablespoon of flaxseed oil contains 120 calories and 8 grams of omega-3 ( alpha-linolenic acid ALA), (500% of the Daily Value), but no fiber.

Suggested Uses for Flaxseed

  • Sprinkle flaxseed on your morning cereal.
  • Add a teaspoon of flaxseed to mustard or mayonnaise that you spread on your sandwich.
  • Blend flaxseed into smoothies.
  • Mix flaxseed into yogurt.
  • Add flaxseed to tomato sauces and casseroles.
  • Include flaxseed in bread, pancake, and muffin recipes.
  • Add flaxseed oil to salad dressings.

Try my recipe for Easy Flax Bread.

flaxseed and flax bread 022

Cautions with Flaxseed

Certain individuals should avoid flaxseed.  People who have inflammatory bowel conditions such as Chrohn’s disease or irritable bowel syndrome should avoid flaxseed because of its laxative effects. It also should be avoided by  pregnant and breast-feeding women, as well as by women with fibroids, endometriosis, or polycystic ovary disease. People taking blood-thinners should avoid flaxseed because it increases the risk of bleeding.  If you have any health concerns, you should consult your physician before consuming flaxseed.

 

 

 

 

 

A Symphony of Healthful Foods Promotes Longevity

 

Mediterranean foods with kale

Many of us wonder what we should eat to preserve our health and slow down the aging of our mind and body – perhaps more kale, walnuts, or olive oil?  Many foods  such as these are touted as “super foods,” because they are nutrient- dense and rich in compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.  While individual foods can provide us with nutrients  we need for good health, recent research suggests that a whole dietary pattern, such as that of the Mediterranean diet, offers the best protection against disease and the best hope for successful aging.

Recent research published in The BMJ, found that the Mediterranean diet, rich in vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, unrefined grains, olive oil, fish, and a glass of wine with meals, may actually slow down the aging process.  The Mediterranean diet is  founded on the dietary traditions of Crete, Greece and southern Italy in the mid-1900’s, when the rates of chronic diseases among the people living in those countries were among the lowest in the world. The study found that the Mediterranean diet is associated with longer length of telomeres, which are DNA sequences at the end of chromosomes.  Telomeres help to protect the chromosomes from fraying, which can damage the genetic code inside. As people age, telomeres naturally shorten; shortened telomeres are linked with a decreased life expectancy and increased risk of age-related chronic diseases.

The researchers, from Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, looked at data from the Nurses’ Health Study to determine whether there was a link between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and longer telomere length.  There were 4,676 healthy, middle-aged women who participated in the study; they completed detailed food questionnaires and had their blood tested to  determine the length of their telomeres.

The researchers concluded that greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with longer telomeres, a marker of slower aging.  The study authors noted that none of the individual components of the diet were associated with telomere length; rather the whole dietary pattern appeared to be responsible for the benefit.

Previous research has linked the Mediterranean diet with decreased risk of heart attacks, strokes, Alzheimer’s disease, Type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, certain cancers, and overall mortality.

Key components of the Mediterranean diet include the following:

  • High intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, seeds, unrefined grains, herbs and spices
  • High intakes of olive oil  (the primary source of fat)
  • Low intake of saturated fat
  • Moderately high intake of fish and seafood (at least twice per week)
  • Cheese and yogurt, moderate portions, daily to weekly (preferably low-fat or non-fat)
  • No more than  4 eggs per week, including those used in baking and cooking
  • Poultry (moderate portions, every 2 days or weekly)
  • Very low intake of meats and sweets

Several key components of the Mediterranean diet, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, olive oil, and herbs, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may have a positive influence on telomere length. And these components may act in a synergistic way when combined in the diet.  For instance, animal research conducted by Professor John Erdman, of the University of Illinois,  found  that rats with prostate tumors which were fed a  diet enriched with both tomato and broccoli had greater reductions in the weight of their tumors than did those rats fed only tomato or only broccoli.  Research published in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity in February, 2013, found that telomere length increased with decreasing omega-6 to omega-3 ratios in the blood. Increasing dietary intake fish, which is high in omega-3 fatty acids, while limiting intake of omega-6 fatty acids, often found in processed baked goods, can help achieve a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3.  So, it is not just a matter of individual nutrients or foods, but the composition of the diet as a whole.

Factors which have been linked to shorter-than-average telomere length include obesity, sugar-sweetened drinks, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

Here is a sample one-day menu for the Mediterranean diet:

Breakfast

  • Oatmeal made from whole oats, topped with blueberries and flaxseeds
  • A cup of low-fat soy milk

oatmeal with blueberries

Lunch

  • Lentil soup
  • Greek salad ( Romaine lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, olives, low-fat feta cheese with olive oil and vinegar dressing)
  • Slice of whole grain bread

Greek salad 2lentil soup

Snack

  • Greek yogurt (low-fat) with chopped fresh apricots and walnuts OR
  • Hummus (made from garbanzo beans) with raw vegetables (broccoli, carrots, cauliflower)

yogurt with apricots

Dinner

  • Grilled salmon with lemon juice and fresh dill
  • Sautéed spinach with garlic and olive oil
  • Brown rice with herbs
  • A glass of red wine

salmon with spinach 

Dessert

  • Oatmeal-raisin cookie and home-made applesauce

oatmeal raisin cookies

The Mediterranean diet approach extends beyond the actual foods that comprise the diet.  Fresh, homegrown foods are selected over packaged, processed foods. Daily exercise, sharing meals with others, and nurturing a deep appreciation for the pleasures of eating nutritious and delicious food are all part of the Mediterranean lifestyle.  Eating the Mediterranean way can put you on the road to a healthy, long life. Give it a try!

 

Wondrous Walnuts

walnuts2

With the number of older Americans on the rise, the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease is climbing as well.   The toll this disease can take on a family, both emotionally and financially can be devastating. Yet a recent study published in the October 2014 issue of Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease offers some encouraging news – walnuts, which have an uncanny resemblance to the human brain, may offer some protection against this terrible disease. The study found that Alzheimer’s susceptible mice,  who consumed a walnut-enriched diet, showed significant improvement in learning skills and memory compared to similar mice whose diets did not include walnuts.  The omega-3 fatty acids (in the form of alpha- linolenic acid) and the many antioxidants present in the nuts are thought to be responsible for this effect.

In addition to Brain health, there are several other health benefits to be gained from eating walnuts, including the following:

  • Heart health  There is no question about it: walnuts are a heart-friendly food.  One ounce of walnuts (about a quarter cup) provides about 2.5 grams of alpha-linolenic acid, a plant form of omega-3 fatty acids  ( This is more than double the daily recommended amount for adult women and one and a half times the daily recommended amount for adult men,)  These omega-3 fats promote heart health by reducing inflammation in the arteries, lowering blood pressure by relaxing the arteries, and decreasing blood triglycerides.  Walnuts also contain L-arginine, an amino acid that the body converts to nitric oxide, a chemical that relaxes and opens the blood vessels, which helps lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of blockages.  Other helpful nutrients found in walnuts include magnesium, which also helps to lower blood pressure, vitamin E. which acts as a blood thinner, reducing the risk of dangerous clots,  and plant sterols, which lower blood cholesterol levels.
  • Improved mood Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to improve mood and lessen depression.  The high level of alpha-linolenic acid in walnuts should encourage a sunnier mood. The recent study involving Alzheimer’s- susceptible mice also found that those mice given a walnut-enriched diet showed a reduction in anxiety.
  • Smooth skin The omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in walnuts promote healthy skin and can be effective in healing eczema and psoriasis.
  • Possible cancer protection Ellagic acid is an antioxidant phytochemical found in walnuts that has been shown to slow the growth of tumors in cell cultures and laboratory animals. Though it has not yet been proven, ellagic acid may reduce the risk of cancer in humans.
  • Eye health Research suggests that nuts, such as walnuts, along with fish and leafy green vegetables, help defend against vision loss from macular degeneration.
  • Protection against osteoporosis A study published in a 2008 issue of the British Journal of Nutrition found that walnut extract promoted  activity of osteoblasts (bone forming cells), suggesting that walnuts may have a protective role against bone loss in postmenopausal women.
  • Prevention of Type 2 diabetes A study published In the April 2014 issue of the Journal of Nutrition found that women who regularly consumed walnuts were significantly less likely to develop Type 2 diabetes.

Not only do walnuts do wonders for your health, they also can add flavor and crunch to your meals.  You can try the following suggestions for increasing your intake of walnuts:

  • Toss a bag of mixed salad greens with some berries, walnuts, and crumbled feta cheese; top with  a raspberry vinaigrette.
  • Add finely chopped walnuts to baked goods such as zucchini bread, pumpkin muffins, and whole grain pancakes.
  • Add walnuts and raspberries to oatmeal or other breakfast cereal.
  • Blend finely chopped walnuts and a cinnamon into low-fat cream cheese.
  • Layer nonfat yogurt with mixed berries and walnuts for a crunchy parfait .

Try my recipe for Blueberry Walnut Yogurt Parfait.

blueberry walnut parfait 003